Ludhiana (ਲੁਧਿਆਣਾ) is a city and a municipal corporation in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab. It is the largest city in Punjab, with an estimated population of 1.4 million. The population increases substantially during the crop harvesting season due to immigration of laborers from states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Delhi. It has an area of about 310 km². The city stands on the Sutlej River's old bank, 13 km south of its present course.It is a major industrial center of northern India.
Ludhiana is centrally located on the National Highway 1 from Delhi to Amritsar, and is connected to the Indian capital city of New Delhi by road and frequent train service.
Ludhiana is the richest district in the Punjab state, and also includes the most expensive fertile land of all of India. Dozens of NRI residents come to the city to invest in condos, hotels,and stand for elections in major Ludhiana cities such as Kila Raipur, Talwandi Rai, Raikot, Jagraon, Samrala, and Khanna. Even though Ludhiana is home to many NRIs it did not boost the city economy because the city was always in high demand before people had gone aboard.
Ludhiana gets its name from the Lodhi Dynasty, which is believed to have founded the city in 1480. During the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar the area formed part of the sarkar or Sirhind. In the latter period of Mughal rule the western part of the district was leased to the Rais of Raikot, by the early eighteen century they had become semi independent of the Mughals. In 1747 Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded and battled the imperial army near Khanna, although the Mughals were able to stop Ahmad Shah - his subsequent invasions weakened the Mughals, which allowed the Rais to take control of Ludhiana town in 1760.
During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Ludhiana became an important British cantonment. Initially, in 1805, Ranjit Singh occupied Ludhiana. However, in 1809, the British decided to curb his advance eastward and sent troops to confront him. Ranjit Singh was forced to sign the treaty of 'perpetual friendship' with the British, which confined his activities to the right bank of the Sutlej. British troops were permanently stationed in Ludhiana and the Cis-Sutlej states came under British protection.
Ludhiana is one of the centrally located district which falls in the Malwa region of the state of Punjab.It is located on the Grand Trunk Roadfrom Delhi to Amritsar.
For administrative purposes it has been placed in the Patiala Division. It lies between north latitude 30°-34' and 31°-01' and east longitude 75°-18' and 76°-20'. It is bounded on the north by the Satluj River, which separates it from Jalandhar district. The river also forms its northern boundary with Hoshiarpur district. On other sides it shares common boundaries with Rupnagar district in the east, Moga district in the west, and Sangrur and Patiala districts in the south and southeast, respectively.